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  • Ann Parry Owen

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Ymysg y rhestrau geiriau a luniodd yr ysgrifwr John Jones o Gellilyfdy yng ngharchar y Fflyd rhwng 1631 a 1633, y mae sawl rhestr sy’n ymwneud â gwaith yr amaethwr gan gynnwys y da byw yn ei ystyr letaf, sef anifeiliaid y fferm. Rwyf wedi bod yn ar un o’r rhestrau hyn yr wythnos hon: Y bugail a’i berthynas (‘y bugail defaid a’r hyn sy’n berthnasol iddo’), ac mae dau air yn arbennig wedi achosi tipyn o grafu pen i mi, sef ystofi defaid ac ystofiad (ac ystofiad yn amlwg yn cyfeirio at y weithred o ystofi defaid).

Daw’r geiriau hyn ar ddechrau’r rhestr: enwir y bugail (a’r lluosog bugeiliaid a bugelydd), ei grefft yw bugeila, ac wrth ei waith bydd yn corlannu defaid mewn corddlan / corlan (dwy ffurf ar yr un gair). Rhwng y geiriau corddlan a corlannu defaid y daw ystofi defaid ac ystofiad, a chan mai geirfa wedi ei threfnu’n thematig yn ôl ystyr yw hon, mae’n rhaid cadw’r lleoliad mewn cof wrth ddyfalu’r ystyr.

Mae tair berf ystofi yn cael eu rhestru yng Ngeiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (GPC), a’r tair yn ddigon hen a pharchus:

  • ystofi1: ‘trefnu edafedd yn ystof’ (term o fyd y gwehydd), a defnydd ffigurol ohoni yng nghyswllt rhoi trefn ar bethau eraill, fel tŷ (dechrau’r 17g. ymlaen)

  • ystofi2: ‘cyflwyno’, gair o’r Saesneg stow, fel yn bestow (1672 ymlaen)

  • ystofi3: ‘dofi, darostwng’, yn cynnwys y ferf dofi. (16g. ymlaen)

Gallwn ddiystyru ystofi2. Ystyriais ddefnydd ffigurol o ystofi1 yn ofalus: y syniad o roi trefn ar ddefaid sydd â thuedd naturiol ynddynt i fynd ar chwâl, gan eu dychmygu’n ymlwybro i mewn i’r gorlan, yn drefnus fesul un fel mae edafedd y gwehydd wedi eu gosodiad ar y gwŷdd. A’r un syniad yn fras o ran ystofi3, a’r defaid yn ymddwyn yn ‘ddof’ wrth ‘ddarostwng’ i ddymuniad y bugail. Er nad oedd y naill na’r llall yn taro deuddeg yn llawn, teimlwn fod potensial gan y ddwy ferf.

Yna, fel sy’n digwydd yn aml, digwyddais ddod ar draws esboniad posibl arall, wrth chwilota mewn llyfr am rywbeth hollol wahanol. Y llyfr oedd cyfrol hyfryd Hugh Evans, Cwm Eithin (Lerpwl, 1933), sy’n disgrifio bywyd cefn gwlad yn ardal Llangwm, yn yr hen sir Ddinbych, yng nghanol y 19g. Wrth chwilota drwy’r tudalennau daliodd y pennawd ‘Diwrnod Hel Defaid fy sylw. Yno esbonia Hugh Evans mai dal defaid a wnâi cŵn y bugail erstalwm ac mai arfer cymharol ddiweddar oedd defnyddio ci i hel defaid at ei gilydd. Esbonia:


Y pryd hynny [h.y. pan oedd yn blentyn], nid oedd y ci hel wedi dyfod i Gymru, dim ond y ci dal, fel y byddai’n rhaid i’r holl deulu droi allan i hel defaid. Y gwahaniaeth rhwng ci dal a chi hel defaid yw hyn. Arfer y ci dal oedd rhedeg ar ôl y ddafad a ddangosid iddo, a’i dal gerfydd ei gwar, a hynny’n dyner heb adael ôl ei ddannedd ar y ei chroen … Nid oedd y ci dal lawer o werth i hel y defaid at ei gilydd.


Felly darostwng y ddafad, ei dofi yn yr ystyr o wneud iddi ildio i ddymuniad y ci, sef aros yn llonydd nes bod y bugail yn cyrraedd ‘ac yn rhoddi’r cwplws am ei gwddf, ac yn hwylio tuag adref’! Ystofi3, felly.


Mewn rhestr arall, lle mae John Jones yn enwi’r gwahanol fathau o gŵn, cawn y pâr bugeilgi a dafatgi – ond nid oes sôn am gi defaid, sy’n gyfuniad dipyn diweddarach (1848 yw’r dystiolaeth gynharaf drosto yn GPC). Felly i bob pwrpas mae gwahaniaeth rhwng y dafatgi, sef y ci dal defaid, a’r ci defaid, sef y ci hel defaid. Ac o ran dafatgi, wrth gwrs, mae’n dilyn patrwm yr hen eiriau traddodiadol eraill: adargi ‘ci dal adar’, hyddgi ‘ci dal hyddod’, &c.

Y cyfan a erys bellach o ran y ferf ystofi, yw darganfod dyfyniad sy’n sôn am ddafatgi yn ystofi dafad. Gadewch i mi wybod os cewch hyd i un!

Nodiadau


The shepherd, his dog and sheep

Amongst the wordlists that the scribe John Jones of Gellilyfdy produced between 1631 and 1633, whilst incarcerated in the Fleet Prison, are several concerning the work of a farmer, including lists relating to livestock. It is one of these lists that I’ve been working on this week: ‘The Shepherd and related items’, and two entries in particular have been rather perplexing, namely ystofi defaid and ystofiad (the first a verb whose object is defaid ‘sheep’, and the second a noun relating to the action of the verb).


These words are found at the beginning of the list: the bugail ‘shepherd’ is named (plural bugeiliaid and bugelydd), his craft is bugeilio (‘shepherding’, ‘tending the sheep’), including corlannu defaid in a corddlan / corlan (‘placing sheep in a fold or pen’). The words ystofi defaid and ystofiad come between corddlan and corlannu, and this is important to remember, as the list follows a thematic rather than an alphabetical order.

There are three verbs ystofi listed in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (GPC)

  • ystofi1: ‘to arrange threads so as to form a warp’ (a weaving term), and more generally used for putting other things in order, such as a house (early 17th century onwards)

  • ystofi2: ‘bestow’, from the English stow, as in bestow (1672 onwards)

  • ystofi3: ‘to tame, subdue’, containing the verb dofi ‘to tame’ (16th century onwards)

We can rule out ystofi2. I considered the figurative use of ystofi1: the idea of trying to organize sheep whose natural tendency it is to scatter, imagining them stepping methodically into a pen, one by one, just as the weaver’s threads are laid out on the loom. Similarly with ystofi3, the idea that sheep are tamed as they yield to the shepherd’s wishes and behave as he wants them to. I felt that both verbs had potential despite not being quite right.

Then, as often happens, I came across another possible explanation whilst looking in a book for something completely different. The book was Hugh Evans’s Cwm Eithin (Liverpool, 1933), which is a wonderful description of rural life in Llangwm, in the old Denbighshire, in the middle of the 19th century. Whilst flicking through its pages I happened upon the heading ‘Sheep herding day’, where Hugh Evans explains that the shepherd’s dog used to restrain sheep in the past, and that the practice of using a dog to herd sheep is a fairly recent one. He explains:

Y pryd hynny, nid oedd y ci hel wedi dyfod i Gymru, dim ond y ci dal, fel y byddai’n rhaid i’r holl deulu droi allan i hel defaid. Y gwahaniaeth rhwng ci dal a chi hel defaid yw hyn. Arfer y ci dal oedd rhedeg ar ôl y ddafad a ddangosid iddo, a’i dal gerfydd ei gwar, a hynny’n dyner heb adael ôl ei ddannedd ar y ei chroen… Nid oedd y ci dal lawer o werth i hel y defaid at ei gilydd.

At that time [i.e. when he was a child], the ci hel ‘herding dog’ had not yet arrived in Wales, there was only the ci dal ‘restraining dog’, so that the whole family would have to turn out to gather in the sheep. The difference between a ci dal and a ci hel is this. The ci dal’s way of working was to run after a sheep that had been shown to it, and to grasp that sheep by its neck, very gently and without leaving any teeth marks on its skin ... The ci dal was not much use in gathering sheep together.

The dog’s role therefore was to restrain the sheep, ‘taming’ (dofi) it in the sense of making it submit to the dog’s will, staying still until the shepherd arrived and put a leash on it before heading back home. Ystofi3, therefore.

In another list, where John Jones names various breeds of dog, we find the pair bugeilgi and dafatgi – but there is no mention of ci defaid, which is a much more recent collocation (the earliest occurrence in GPC is dated 1848). There seems therefore to be a distinction between the dafatgi, the dog which catches and restrains (dal) sheep, and the ci defaid, the dog which rounds up sheep. And dafatgi, of course, follows the pattern of the other old traditional names: adargi ‘bird-hunting dog’, hyddgi ‘deerhound’, &c.

All that remains then, as far as the verb ystofi is concerned, is to discover a quotation which mentions a dafatgi restraining (ystofi) a sheep. Do please let me know if you find one!


Notes

  • National Library of Wales, Peniarth 305, fol. 62v.

  • Hugh Evans, Cwm Eithin (Liverpool, 1933), 142.


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  • Ann Parry Owen

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Pan oedd John Jones o Gellilyfdy, yr ysgrifydd o sir y Fflint, yn garcharor yn y Fflyd yn Llundain tua 1630, ac yn disgwyl derbyn llawysgrifau gan gyfeillion i’w copïo, aeth ati i roi trefn ar restrau o eiriau y bu’n eu casglu ers troad y ganrif. Mewn cwta dwy flynedd llanwodd dri llyfr gyda geiriau dan amrywiol benawdau, ac yn y trydydd un ceir rhestrau’n ymwneud â byd natur. Rhestrodd enwau coed a phlanhigion o bob math, adar gwyllt a dof, anifeiliaid, pryfed mân (sef anifeiliaid bychan fel llyffantod, nadroedd, malwod ac ati) yna pryfed ehedawl, dyfrawl neu ymlusgawl (sef yr hyn y byddem ni’n eu galw’n bryfed heddiw).


O dan y pennawd Pysg eu henwau a physgota casglodd dros gant a hanner o enwau pysgod a physgod chregyn, gan ychwanegu disgrifiad difyr o sawl un ohonynt. Mae nifer o’r enwau bellach yn anhysbys, ond mae eraill yn gyfarwydd, er na ellir bod yn gwbl sicr bob tro mai’r un yw’r pysgodyn dan sylw â’r pysgodyn rydym ni’n ei adnabod gyda’r un enw heddiw.


Soniwyd y tro diwethaf am yr abad, sef math o forgi neu siarc, y Rhina squatina. Mae John Jones yn rhoi cryn sylw i’r morgwn: cŵn coegion yw ei enw amdanynt. ‘Ffals’ neu ‘gwag’ yw ystyr arferol coegcneuen goeg ydi cneuen wag, fel yn y dywediad cneuen goeg sy galetaf. Yn yr Oesoedd Canol gallai coeg hefyd ddisgrifio person ‘dall’ neu un a chanddo ryw fath o nam ar ei lygad: Maredudd Goeg, er enghraifft, oedd enw mab dall yr Arglwydd Rhys o Ddeheubarth. Tybed ai cyfeirio at ryw nodwedd ar lygaid y morgwn a wna’r elfen coeg yn y cyfuniad ci coeg? Gwelaf o rai ffynonellau fod trydydd amrant pŵl gan nifer ohonynt, a allai beri iddynt edrych fel pe baent yn ddall.


Meddai John Jones:


Cŵn coegion yw yr henw cyffredin ar yr holl gŵn bysgod sydd yn magu yn y môr, ac y maent yn bwrw oddi wrthynt ac ohonynt beth a elwir esgid y frân, o’r hon y mae yr holl gŵn yn dyfod.


Mae’n rhaid mai’r mermaid’s purse yw esgid y frân, sef y cwdyn du caled yn dal wyau’r morgwn a’r môr-gathod a welir wedi sychu ar hyd y traethau yn y gaeaf. Ni lwyddais i ddod o hyd i unrhyw enghraifft arall o’r ffurf esgid y frân am y cwdyn hwn – pwrs y fôr-forwyn, term diweddar wedi ei gyfieithu o’r Saesneg, a geir yng Ngeiriadur Prifysgol Cymru ac yng Ngeiriadur yr Academi. O 1700 y daw’r dystiolaeth gynharaf am mermaid’s purse yn Saesneg, ond o tua’r un cyfnod (1688) ceir enw arall amdano, sef y crow-purse – a’r elfen crow, fel yr elfen brân yn yr enw Cymraeg, yn cyfeirio at liw du’r cwdyn wyau pan fydd wedi sychu ar y traeth.

O ran y mathau o gŵn coegion mae John Jones yn enwi’r cadell fantach fel y banw o’r cwn coegion (sef y pysgodyn benyw, a mantach yn cyfleu’r ffaith ei bod yn ddiddanned neu ag ychydig iawn o ddannedd); a’r gwryw, meddai, yw’r ci pigog. Yna rhestrir y ci brych, y penci brych a’r ci glas i gyd fel aelodau o rywogaeth y cŵn coegion.


Disgrifia’r morgath fel a thornback, gan esbonio:


pedwar rhywogaeth morcath y sydd, sef cath felen, bila gwyn, clwt y torddu, cath bigog – a honno yw’r iawn thornback.


Tybed ai’r thornback ray (Raja clavata) yw’r gath bigog (cf. GPC morcath bigog), ac ai’r blonde ray yw’r gath felen? Byddai’n braf cael rhagor o wybodaeth am glwt y torddu (?pysgodyn sy’n edrych fel clwtyn ac iddo fol tywyll) a’r bila gwyn.


Nodiadau


Cats, dogs and crows


When John Jones of Gellilyfdy, the scribe from Flintshire, was incarcerated in the Fleet, London, in around 1630, and awaiting the arrival of manuscripts from friends to copy, he resumed work on wordlists that he had been collecting since the turn of the century. In just two years he filled three books with words under various headings, the third of which contains lists relating to the natural world. For example, he listed the names of trees, various kinds of plants, wild and domesticated birds, small animals such as lizards, snakes and snails, etc., and ‘flying’, ‘aquatic’ and ‘crawling’ insects.


Under the heading ‘Fish, their names and fishing’, he collected over a hundred and fifty names of fish and shellfish, adding short and interesting definitions to many entries. Many of the names are unidentifiable, others are known, but still we cannot be completely sure in each instance that the name we know today corresponds to the fish John Jones had in mind.


In the last post I discussed the abad ‘abbot’, probably the angel shark, Rhina squatina. John Jones pays particular attention to the dogfish or small sharks: he calls them cŵn coegion. Coeg usually means ‘false’ or ‘empty’ – for example cneuen goeg refers to an empty nut, as in the old saying cneuen goeg sy galetaf ‘the empty nut is the hardest’. In the Middle Ages coeg could also describe a blind person, or one with some sort of deformity in his eye: for instance the blind son of the Lord Rhys of Deheubarth was known as Maredudd Goeg. Is it possible, therefore, that coeg in the name ci coeg refers to a feature of the dogfish’s eyes? I see from some sources that dogfish have a third translucent eyelid which could give them the appearance of being blind.


John Jones says:


Cŵn coegion yw yr henw cyffredin ar yr holl gŵn bysgod sydd yn magu yn y môr, ac y maent yn bwrw oddi wrthynt ac ohonynt beth a elwir esgid y frân, o’r hon y mae yr holl gŵn yn dyfod.


Cŵn coegion is the general name for all dogfish that are reared in the sea, and they cast from them, and from within them, something that is called esgid y frân, from which all the dogs come.


From the description we can infer that esgid y frân ‘crow’s shoe’ refers to the mermaid’s purse, the tough, black, dried egg cases of sharks and rays that are often found washed up on our beaches in winter. I have been unable to find any other instances of the name esgid y frân – the modern term pwrs y fôr-forwyn, given in the University of Wales Dictionary and Geiriadur yr Academi, is a direct translation of the English mermaid’s purse. The Oxford English Dictionary gives 1700 as the date of the earliest evidence for mermaid’s purse, and interestingly, from about the same period (1688) comes another name for it, the crow-purse – with the element crow, like the Welsh brân, referring to the blackness of the dried pouches.

John Jones names the cadell fantach as the female of the dogfish (y banw o’r cwn coegion, with the element mantach meaning ‘toothless’ or ‘with very few teeth’), and the male, he says, is the ci pigog (‘spiny dog’). The ci brych (‘spotted dog’), penci brych (probably ‘spotted nursehound’) and ci glas (‘blue’ or ‘grey dog’) are also ‘of the species of dogfish’ (o rywogaeth y cŵn coegion).


He further describes the morcath (‘skate’ or ‘ray’, lit. sea cat) as a thornback, explaining:


pedwar rhywogaeth morcath y sydd, sef cath felen, bila gwyn, clwt y torddu, cath bigog – a honno yw’r iawn thornback.


there are four species of rays, namely cath felen, bila gwyn, clwt y torddu, cath bigog – and the last one is the correct thornback.


Can the cath bigog be identified with the thornback ray (Raja clavata, GPC morcath bigog), and the cath felen with the blonde ray? But what about clwt y torddu (?a black-bellied fish shaped like a piece of cloth), and the bila gwyn, which is presumably of a light colour?

Notes

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  • Ann Parry Owen

Updated: Jun 21, 2020

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O gwmpas y flwyddyn 1621, ac yntau ar y pryd dan glo yng ngharchar Castell Llwydlo, aeth yr ysgrifydd enwog, John Jones o Gellilyfdy, ati i roi trefn ar enwau am bysgod a chregyn y môr yr oedd wedi bod yn eu casglu ers dechrau’r ganrif. Diweddarodd y rhestr eto pan oedd yng ngharchar y Fleet yn Llundain yn 1633, gan ychwanegu rhagor o bysgod at ei gasgliad. Mae’r rhestr, a’r wybodaeth a geir ynddi, yn awgrymu bod ganddo gryn ddiddordeb mewn pysgod a’u harferion.

Y pysgodyn cyntaf a enwir ganddo yw’r ABAD, a dyma sut y mae’n ei ddisgrifio yn 1621 (fi piau’r atalnodi):

math ar bysc yn y mor ar y sydd ynddo dri rhywogaeth bysc. Y penn blaen iddo sydd asgelloc val morkath, ac a blas morkath arno, ac rhaid yw ei gweirio val morkath y’w vwytta. Y rhan ganol iddo sydd debic i ganol mulwel, ac y sydd a blas mulwel arno, ac a ddylir ei gweirio val mulwel y’w vwyta. A[’r] rhan ol iddo sydd debic i gi glas, ac y sydd a blas ki glas arno ac a ddylir ei gweirio val ki glas y’w vwyta, ac a vag y rai ievaink yn ei groth val moelrhon neu lamhidydd.


[cweirio = cyweirio, paratoi; morcath = ‘skate, ray’; mulwel = penfras, ‘cod’; ci glas = ‘dogfish’; moelrhon = morlo; llamhidydd = ‘porpoise’]

Ychydig dros ganrif yn ddiweddarach, tua dechrau’r 1740au, prynodd Lewis Morris, yr hynafiaethydd o Fôn, gopi o gyfrol fawr Francis Willughby ar bysgod, De Historia Piscium (1686). Wrth iddo ddarllen drwyddo’n fanwl, ychwanegodd nifer o sylwadau ar y dalennau darluniadol yng nghefn y gyfrol, gan dynnu ar ei wybodaeth ei hun am hanes y pysgod a’u henwau yng Nghymru. O ddiddordeb arbennig yw’r sylw canlynol sydd ganddo ar y ddalen sy’n darlunio’r Squatina Salu:

The Monkfish or Angelfish in wales Called Maelgi. They are found in Plenty about Sarn y Bwch and in Barmouth Bay. They are generally of ye Size of a Man, and are delicious Eating. Said to have 3 sorts of Fish on it, a Ray, a Salmon & a Sturgeon. They have often their Heads above water, and I suppose gave the first rise to ye story of ye Meremaid. They take them in nets with mashes 10 Inches or a foot square.

Mae’n debygol iawn mai’r un pysgodyn sydd gan John Jones a Lewis Morris mewn golwg, er nad ydynt yn gwbl gytûn am union natur y tair rhan – y naill yn cynnwys morcath, mulwel a chi glas, a’r llall yn cynnwys morcath, eog a stwrsiwn. O ran yr enw Abad y mae John Jones yn ei roi ar y pysgodyn hwn, mae’n ddiddorol bod H. E Forrest, yn ei gyfrol ar The Vertebrate Fauna of North Wales (1907), yn cofnodi’r enw Abbot am yr Angelfish, y Rhina squatina: yr Abad felly.

Esbonnir yn yr Oxford English Dictionary (dan y gair monk, n.1), fod yr elfen monk yn digwydd mewn enwau anifeiliaid ‘whose form suggests the cowled or tonsured figure of a monk’. Mae’n debygol fod yr enw Abad yn cyfleu’r un syniad, ac mae’r llun isod yn sicr yn atgoffa rhywun o abid mynach neu abad, gyda’i lewys llac.

Ffynonellau


The Abbot and the Mermaid


In around 1621, when the eminent Welsh scribe John Jones of Gellilyfdy was incarcerated in Ludlow Castle prison, he decided to sort the names of fish and shellfish that he had been collecting since the beginning of the century. He would update this list again in the Fleet prison, London, in 1633, adding more items to his collection. The list, and the information contained in it, suggests that Jones was particularly interested in fish and their habits.

The first fish to be named is the ABAD (‘abbot’), and this is how he described it in 1621:

math ar bysc yn y mor ar y sydd ynddo dri rhywogaeth bysc. Y penn blaen iddo sydd asgelloc val morkath, ac a blas morkath arno, ac rhaid yw ei gweirio val morkath y’w vwytta. Y rhan ganol iddo sydd debic i ganol mulwel, ac y sydd a blas mulwel arno, ac a ddylir ei gweirio val mulwel y’w vwyta. A[’r] rhan ol iddo sydd debic i gi glas, ac y sydd a blas ki glas arno ac a ddylir ei gweirio val ki glas y’w vwyta, ac a vag y rai ievaink yn ei groth val moelrhon neu lamhidydd.


a sort of sea fish that contains three types of fish. The front part has fins similar to a ray, it tastes like a ray, and one must prepare it like a ray for eating. The middle part is similar to the middle of a cod, and it tastes like cod, and needs to be prepared like cod for eating. The rear part is similar to a dogfish and it tastes like a dogfish and needs to be prepared like a dogfish for eating. It nurtures its young in its womb like a seal or a porpoise.

Just over a century later, in the early 1740s, the antiquarian Lewis Morris of Anglesey bought a copy of Francis Willughby’s large volume on fish, De Historia Piscium (1686). As he read through it carefully, Morris added notes drawing on his own knowledge of fish in Wales and their Welsh names. These comments are particularly abundant on the pages containing illustrations of fish towards the end of the volume. Of particular interest is the following note he has on the page depicting the Squatina Salu:

The Monkfish or Angelfish in wales Called Maelgi. They are found in Plenty about Sarn y Bwch and in Barmouth Bay. They are generally of ye Size of a Man, and are delicious Eating. Said to have 3 sorts of Fish on it, a Ray, a Salmon & a Sturgeon. They have often their Heads above water, and I suppose gave the first rise to ye story of ye Meremaid. They take them in nets with mashes 10 Inches or a foot square.

It is very likely that John Jones and Lewis Morris both have the same fish in mind, although they are not entirely in agreement about the exact nature of its three parts – the former’s consisting of a ray, cod and dogfish, and the latter’s of a ray, salmon and sturgeon. As for John Jones’s name for it, Abad, it is interesting that H.E. Forrest, in his volume The Vertebrate Fauna of North Wales (1907), records the name Abbot for the Angelfish or Rhina Squatina.


According to the Oxford English Dictionary (under monk, n.1), the element monk is found in the names of animals ‘whose form suggests the cowled or tonsured figure of a monk’. The word Abbot probably conveyed the same idea, and the image below certainly does remind one of a a habit worn by a monk or an abbot, with its loose sleeves.

Sources



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